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Validation of a multi-residue method to determine deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin in mosquito nets by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD)

Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara13*, Olivier Pigeon2 and Pieter Spanoghe1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Crop Protection, Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, Gent B-9000, Belgium

2 Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W), Agriculture and Natural Environment Department, Plant Protection and Biocides Physico-Chemistry and Residues Unit, Rue du Bordia, 11, Gembloux, B-5030, Belgium

3 Laboratoire National de Santé Publique (LNSP), Boulevard des Tansoba kiéma, Ouagadougou 09 09 BP 24, Burkina Faso

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Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:77  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-77

Published: 20 March 2013



Nowadays long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) are frequently used around the world to protect people against malaria vectors. As they contain insecticide, laboratory control is needed to check whether the content of the active ingredient follows the conditions of the manufacturer and also if the active ingredient is still present after some time of use. For this purpose, an analytical method had to be developed. The fact that LNs include a range of polymers for the yarn and use coated or incorporated technologies for the active ingredient, it is a challenge to find only one analytical method determining the active ingredient in LNs, which takes into account both impregnation technologies. Some methods are provided by international organizations but are limited by the determination of only one pesticide per method. The aim of this study was to optimize a short time extraction method for deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin from coated and incorporated mosquito nets and also to detect both insecticides in one analytical run, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD).


Based on the literature, the most suitable solvent and the adequate extraction process for the insecticides used for net making were identified and adapted for the new multi-residue method.


The validation data of the multi-residue method to determine deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin in mosquito nets by GC-μECD are given. Depending on the concentration of the active ingredient spiked on the nets, the mean recovery for alpha-cypermethrin ranged between 86% and 107% with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. For deltamethrin it ranged between 90% and 108% with a relative standard deviation also below 3.5%. The limit of detection is 0.009 g.a.i/kg of net (0.3 mg a.i./m2 of net) both for alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin.


Data obtained are excellent. A 30 minutes reflux extraction method with xylene was developed to determine alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin in long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The method can be easily extended to others pyrethroid used for mosquito net treatment. This paper also presents an overview of the studies dealing with pesticide determination in mosquito nets.

Analytical method validation; Mosquito net; Deltamethrin; Alpha-cypermethrin; GC-μECD