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gSG6-P1 salivary biomarker discriminates micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in low and seasonal malaria areas

André Barembaye Sagna12*, Jean Biram Sarr13, Lobna Gaayeb14, Papa Makhtar Drame3, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath5, Simon Senghor1, Cheikh Saya Sow1, Anne Poinsignon3, Modou Seck1, Emmanuel Hermann4, Anne-Marie Schacht14, Ngor Faye2, Cheikh Sokhna5, Franck Remoue6 and Gilles Riveau14

Author Affiliations

1 Centre de Recherche Biomédicale (CRB) Espoir Pour La Santé, 269 Route de la corniche, Sor - BP: 226, Saint-Louis, Sénégal

2 Laboratoire de parasitologie générale, Département de Biologie Animale, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal

3 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR 224 MIVEGEC, 911 avenue Agropolis - B: 64501, Montpellier, F-34394, France

4 Centre d’Infection et d’Immunité de Lille (CIIL), Inserm U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, Université Lille Nord de France, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 rue du Pr. Calmette, Lille cedex, 59019, USA

5 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 198 URMITE Campus international de Hann, IRD – BP : 1386, Dakar, CP, 18524, Sénégal

6 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 224 MIVEGEC - Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Benin

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Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:68  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-68

Published: 15 March 2013



Over the past decade, a sharp decline of malaria burden has been observed in several countries. Consequently, the conventional entomological methods have become insufficiently sensitive and probably under-estimate micro-geographical heterogeneity of exposure and subsequent risk of malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated whether the human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide, known as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure, could be a sensitive and reliable tool for discriminating human exposure to Anopheles bites in area of low and seasonal malaria transmission.


A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in Northern Senegal where An. gambiae s.l. is the main malaria vector. Human IgG Ab response to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was compared according to the season and villages in children from five villages in the middle Senegal River valley, known as a low malaria transmission area.


IgG levels to gSG6-P1 varied considerably according to the villages, discriminating the heterogeneity of Anopheles exposure between villages. Significant increase of IgG levels to gSG6-P1 was observed during the peak of exposure to Anopheles bites, and decreased immediately after the end of the exposure season. In addition, differences in the season-dependent specific IgG levels between villages were observed after the implementation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by The National Malaria Control Program in this area.


The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission. A biomarker such as this could also be used to monitor and evaluate the possible heterogeneous effectiveness of operational vector control programs in low-exposure areas.

Malaria; Salivary peptide; Biomarker; Low transmission; Anopheles exposure; Antibodies