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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

Domenico Otranto1*, Filipe Dantas-Torres12, Emanuele Brianti3, Donato Traversa4, Dusan Petrić5, Claudio Genchi6 and Gioia Capelli7

Author Affiliations

1 Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Valenzano, Italy

2 Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães (Fiocruz-PE), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

3 Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Italy

4 Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Comparate, Università degli Studi di Teramo, Teramo, Italy

5 Laboratory for Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia

6 Dipartimento di Patologia Animale, Igiene e Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Milan, Milan, Italy

7 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Padova, Italy

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Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:16  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-16

Published: 16 January 2013

Abstract

Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

Keywords:
Zoonosis; Dirofilaria immitis; Dirofilaria repens; Onchocerca lupi; Cercopithifilaria; Thelazia callipaeda; Europe; Risk; Mosquito; Tick; Vector; Treatment; Control