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Open Access Research

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasmosis in HIV infected and non-infected individuals in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia

Fisseha Walle1, Nigatu Kebede23*, Aster Tsegaye4 and Tesfu Kassa2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Immunology and Hematology, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

2 Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:15  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-15

Published: 16 January 2013

Abstract

Background

Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease distributed worldwide, is an infection caused by the ubiquitous obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It is a major public health concern because the disease is serious in terms of mortality or physical and /or psychological sequellae in patients with HIV disease. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors in HIV infected and non-infected individuals attending Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods

A cross sectional study was conducted at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Amhara National Regional State. Venous blood samples were collected from 103 HIV infected pre anti-retroviral therapy patients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital and 101 HIV negative apparently healthy voluntary blood donors at the blood bank. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. Socio-demographic and associated risk factors for Toxoplasmosis from each individual were also obtained and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.

Results

Of the examined HIV seropositive individuals, 87.4% (90/103) and 10.7% (11/103) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that anti-T. gondii seropositivity was independently significantly associated with undercooked or raw meat consumption (adjusted OR=5.73, 95% CI=1.35-24.39; P=0.02) and having contact with cat (adjusted OR= 4.29, 95% CI=1.08-16.94; P=0.04) in HIV positive individuals. In HIV negative apparently healthy blood donors, prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies were 70.29% and 2.97% for IgG and IgM, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that undercooked or raw meat consumption (adjusted OR=6.45, 95% CI=2.16-19.28; p=0.001) and sex (OR=6.79, 95% CI=2.14-21.60; p=0.001) were independently significantly associated with anti-T. gondii IgG seropositivity, with a significantly higher number of males affected than females.

Conclusion

The present findings showed a high sero-prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in HIV infected pre-ART and HIV non-infected apparently healthy blood donors in Bahir Dar. Consumption of undercooked or raw meat might greatly contribute towards acquiring T. gondii infection in HIV infected pre-ART and HIV non-infected apparently healthy blood donors. It may be appropriate to include routine serological screening test for determination of anti-T. gondii antibodies in HIV infected pre-ART individuals and HIV negative apparently healthy blood donors. In addition, health education towards avoiding eating undercooked and raw meat, and avoiding contact with cats were recommended.

Keywords:
Toxoplasmosis; Toxoplasma gondii; IgG; IgM; HIV; Seroprevalence