Table 4

Effect of silymarin with/without praziquantel on hepatic hydroxyproline content and immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2, 10 and 18 weeks post-infection of mice with S.mansoni

Animal groups

Within 10 successive microscopic fields (×400)/section/animal

(Mean percentage +ve cells ± SEM)

Hydroxyproline content

(μg/g liver)


TGF-β1

MMP-2


10 wks

18 wks

10 wks

18 wks

10 wks

18 wks


Uninfected(vehicle)

0.0 ± 0.0

0.0 ± 0.0

0.0 ± 0.0

0.0 ± 0.0

789.45 ± 50.61

763.82 ± 22.32


Infected (Vehicle)

50.60 ± 3.62

62.60 ± 4.21

37.00 ± 2.55

50.00 ± 5.70

†††

1495.88 ± 91.85

†††

1961.96 ± 80.97


Infected + PZQ

‡‡‡

14.80 ± 0.37

(70.75%)

‡‡‡

29.5 ± 2.01

(52.88%)

26.0 ± 1.62

(29.72%)

‡‡‡

17.67 ± 1.82

(64.66%)

†‡‡‡

983.57 ± 41.43

(34.25%)

†††‡‡‡

1184.84 ± 77.27

(39.61%)


Infected + silymarin

‡‡‡

25.50 ± 2.81

(49.60%)

‡‡‡

32.17 ± 3.30

(48.61%)

‡‡‡

19.5 ± 1.33

(47.30%)

‡‡‡

35.5 ± 2.14

(29.00%)

†††‡

1210.71 ± 89.85

(19.06%)

†††‡

1628.01 ± 111.92

(17.02%)


Infected + PZQ + silymarin

‡‡‡§§

8.03 ± 1.69

(84.13%)

‡‡‡§§

20.60 ± 0.60

(67.09%)

‡‡‡§

20.5 ± 1.14

(44.59%)

‡‡‡

14.60 ± 1.72

(70.80%)

†‡‡‡

964.74 ± 58.91

(35.51%)

†††‡‡‡

1043.50 ± 58.45

(46.81%)


Data are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 8 in each group).

Mice were administered praziquantel (PZQ; 500 mg/kg/day for 2 days) in the 7th week post infection (PI) and silymarin (750 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks) at the 4th and 12th weeks PI for 6 weeks and were killed 10 and 18 weeks PI respectively. Numbers in parentheses indicate the percentage of reduction from infected (vehicle) group. TGF-β1, transforming growth factor β1; MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2.

† Significantly different from uninfected (vehicle) group at P < 0.05 and ††† at P < 0.001. ‡ Significantly different from infected (vehicle) group at P < 0.05 and ‡‡‡ at P < 0.001. § Significantly different from PZQ-treated group at P < 0.05 and §§ at P < 0.01.

El-Lakkany et al. Parasites & Vectors 2012 5:9   doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-9

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