Table 3 

Effect of silymarin with/without praziquantel on serum transforming growth factorβ1 and matrix metalloproteinase2, 10 and 18 weeks post infection of mice with S.mansoni 

Animal groups 
Serum TGFβ1 (ng/ml) 
Serum MMP2 (ng/ml) 



10 wks 
18 wks 
10 wks 
18 wks 



Uninfected (vehicle) 
7.80 ± 0.69 
7.98 ± 0.48 
150.40 ± 18.17 
181.00 ± 6.72 


Infected (Vehicle) 
††† 19.98 ± 2.37 
††† 40.85 ± 1.41 
†† 265.43 ± 21.65 
††† 374.00 ± 32.16 


Infected+ PZQ 
‡‡‡ 11.32 ± 0.85 (43.34%) 
†††‡‡‡ 19.71 ± 0.24 (51.75%) 
††‡ 210.40 ± 8.13 (20.73%) 
†††‡‡‡ 226.83 ± 11.69 (39.35%) 


Infected + silymarin 
†††‡ 13.44 ± 0.75 (32.73%) 
††† 36.84 ± 1.44 (9.82%) 
†† 241.31 ± 36.25 (9.093%) 
††† 283.80 ± 42.20 (24.12%) 


Infected + PZQ + silymarin 
‡‡‡§§ 7.83 ± 0.65 (60.81%) 
†††‡‡‡ 18.29 ± 0.73 (55.23%) 
‡‡§ 165.33 ± 14.20 (37.71%) 
‡‡‡§ 187.60 ± 11.57 (49.84%) 


Data are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 8 in each group). Mice were administered praziquantel (PZQ; 500 mg/kg/day for 2 days) in the 7^{th }week post infection (PI) and silymarin (750 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks) at the 4^{th }and 12^{th }weeks PI for 6 weeks and were killed 10 and 18 weeks PI respectively. Numbers in parentheses indicate the percentage of reduction from infected (vehicle) group. †† Significantly different from uninfected (vehicle) group at P < 0.01 and ††† at P < 0.001. ‡ Significantly different from infected (vehicle) group at P < 0.05, ‡‡ at P < 0.01 and ‡‡‡ at P < 0.001. § Significantly different from infected treated with PZQ group at P < 0.05 and §§ at P < 0.01. 

ElLakkany et al. Parasites & Vectors 2012 5:9 doi:10.1186/1756330559 