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A global map of dominant malaria vectors

Marianne E Sinka1*, Michael J Bangs2, Sylvie Manguin3, Yasmin Rubio-Palis45, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap68, Maureen Coetzee7, Charles M Mbogo9, Janet Hemingway10, Anand P Patil1, William H Temperley1, Peter W Gething1, Caroline W Kabaria11, Thomas R Burkot12, Ralph E Harbach13 and Simon I Hay114*

Author Affiliations

1 Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Tinbergen Building, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK

2 Public Health and Malaria Control Department, PT Freeport Indonesia, Kuala Kencana, Papua, Indonesia

3 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Lab. d'Immuno-Physiopathologie Moléculaire Comparée, UMR-MD3/Univ. Montpellier 1, Faculté de Pharmacie, 15, Ave Charles Flahault, 34093 Montpellier, France

4 BIOMED, Universidad de Carabobo, Apartado 2073, Maracay 2101-A, Venezuela

5 Laboratorio de Ecología de Vectores, Dirección de Control de Vectores y Fauna Nociva, Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud, Maracay, Venezuela

6 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

7 Malaria Entomology Research Unit, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

8 Vector Control Reference Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131 Johannesburg, South Africa

9 KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast, Kilifi, Kenya

10 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK

11 Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI - Univ. Oxford - Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, P.O. Box 43640-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

12 School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, Queensland, Tropical Health Alliance, James Cook University, Queenland, Australia

13 Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK

14 Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD 20892, USA

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Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:69  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-69

Published: 4 April 2012

Abstract

Background

Global maps, in particular those based on vector distributions, have long been used to help visualise the global extent of malaria. Few, however, have been created with the support of a comprehensive and extensive evidence-based approach.

Methods

Here we describe the generation of a global map of the dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria that makes use of predicted distribution maps for individual species or species complexes.

Results

Our global map highlights the spatial variability in the complexity of the vector situation. In Africa, An. gambiae, An. arabiensis and An. funestus are co-dominant across much of the continent, whereas in the Asian-Pacific region there is a highly complex situation with multi-species coexistence and variable species dominance.

Conclusions

The competence of the mapping methodology to accurately portray DVS distributions is discussed. The comprehensive and contemporary database of species-specific spatial occurrence (currently available on request) will be made directly available via the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) website from early 2012.