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Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

Eliningaya J Kweka1*, Annadurai Senthilkumar2 and Venugopalan Venkatesalu2

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Ngaramtoni, Off Nairobi Road, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania

2 Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India

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Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:277  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-277

Published: 3 December 2012



Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm.


Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h) 55.20 (after 24 h) and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h) and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h), 99.09 (after 24 h) and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h). The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h) 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h) and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h) respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae.


The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools.