Seasonal prevalence of malaria vectors and entomological inoculation rates in the rubber cultivated area of Niete, South Region of Cameroon
1 Laboratory for Vector Biology and control, National Reference Unit for Vector Control, The Biotechnology Center, Nkolbisson- University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 3851-Messa, Yaounde, Cameroon
2 Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon
3 Organization de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), Yaounde, Cameroon
4 Ministry of Public Health, National Malaria Control Program, P.O. Box 14386, Yaounde, Cameroon
5 Institute of Medical Research and Study of Medicinal Plants (IMPM), Ministry of Research and Innovation (MINRESI), Yaounde, Cameroon
6 Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:197 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-197Published: 10 September 2012
Development of large scale agro-industries are subject to serious environmental modifications. In malaria endemic areas this would greatly impact on the transmission paradigm. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys to characterize the Anopheles fauna and their entomological inoculation rates were conducted during May 2010 (peak rainy season) and December 2010 (peak dry season) in the intense rubber cultivated area of Niete in southern forested Cameroon.
Mosquitoes were sampled by night collections on human volunteers, identified morphologically and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex further identified to species and molecular form. Parity status was determined following the dissection of the ovaries. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigen indices were estimated after the identification of CS antigen by ELISA and the average entomological inoculation rates determined.
A total of 1187 Anopheles was collected, 419 (35.3%) in the rainy season and 768 (64.7%) in the dry season. Species found were the M molecular form of An. gambiae s.s (66.8%), An. ziemanni (28.3%), An. paludis (4.7%), An. smithii (0.2%). An. gambiae M-form was the principal species in the dry (56.2%) and wet (86.2%) seasons. Average overall entomological inoculation rate for the malaria vectors varied between the dry season (1.09 ib/p/n) and the rainy season (2.30 ib/p/n).
Malaria transmission in Niete occurs both in the dry and rainy season with the intensities peaking in the dry season. This is unlike previous studies in other areas of southern forested Cameroon where transmission generally peaks in the rainy season. Environmental modifications due to agro-industrial activities might have influenced vector distribution and the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. This necessitates the possible implementation of control strategies that are related to the eco-geography of the area.