Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice
1 School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, Fujian Province, China
2 Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Shanghai, 200241, P R China
Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:172 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-172Published: 13 August 2012
Thyroid hormones (TH) modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs). The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ) and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice.
The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript levels were characterized, and the phylogenetic relationship between THR, RAR and RXR from other organisms were analysis, the ability of this protein binding to a conserved DNA core motif, and its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice were evaluated.
The SjTHRβ cDNA was cloned, verified by 5’ and 3’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and shown to be polyadenylated at the 3’end, suggesting the transcript is full-length. SjTHRβ is homologous to THRs from other species and has a predicted conservative DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain that normally characterizes these receptors. A comparative quantitative PCR analysis showed that SjTHRβ was the highest expressed in 21d worms and the lowest in 7 d and 13 d schistosomula. The cDNA corresponding to DNA binding domain (SjTHRβ-DBD) and ligand binding domain (SjTHRβ-LBD) were cloned and subsequently expressed in E coli. The expressed proteins were used to immunize mice and generate specific serum against recombinant SjTHRβ (rSjTHRβ). Western blotting revealed that anti-rSjTHRβ-LBD serum recognized two protein bands in extracts from 21 d worm with molecular sizes of approximately 95 kDa and 72 kDa. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis showed that rSjTHRβ-DBD could bind to a conserved DNA core motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSjTHRβ-LBD could induce partial protective efficacy(27.52% worm reduction and 29.50% liver eggs reduction)against schistosome infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that mice vaccinated with recombinant SjTHRβ-LBD (rSjTHRβ-LBD) generated increased levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody. Bio-plex analysis demonstrated that rSjTHRβ-LBD induced considerably higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-12 and TNF-α) than T helper 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-4), suggesting that rSjTHRβ-LBD vaccination could stimulate mixed Th1/Th2 types with Th1 dominant immune responses.
Our study presented here identified SjTHRβ as a new schistosome THR that might play an important role in host-parasite interaction and be a vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis.