Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China
1 National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, 200025, People’s Republic of China
2 WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Key Laboratory of Parasite & Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, 200025, People’s Republic of China
3 Anhui Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhu, 241000, People’s Republic of China
4 Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, 450016, People’s Republic of China
5 Yuangcheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yuangchen, Henan province, 450000, People’s Republic of China
6 Yongqiao District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shuzhou, Anhui province, 241000, People’s Republic of China
Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:136 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-136Published: 9 July 2012
Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated.
The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR), human blood index (HBI), and the parous rates (M). Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site.
About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of An. sinensis was 6.0957 and 5.8621 (mosquitoes/people/night) estimated by using half-night human bait trap method and full-capture method, respectively. Human blood indexes (HBI) were 0.6667 (6/9) and 0.6429 (18/28), and man-biting habits were 0.2667 and 0.2572 in two sites, respectively. Therefore, the expectation of infective life and vector capacity of An. sinensis was 0.3649-0.4761 and 0.5502-0.7740, respectively, in Huanhuai valley of central China where the outbreak occurred, which is much higher than that in the previous years without malaria outbreak.
This study suggests that vivax malaria outbreak in Huanhuai valley is highly related to the enhancement in vector capacity of An. sinensis for P. vivax, which is attributed to the local residents’ habits and the remarkable drop in the number of large livestock leading to disappearance of traditional biological barriers.