Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs
1 Bayer HealthCare AG, Animal Health Division, 51368, Leverkusen, Germany
2 ClinVet International, 11186, Universitas, 9321, South Africa
3 Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, 9301, South Africa
4 Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa
5 Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health, 12809 Shawnee Mission Parkway, Shawnee, KS, 66216, USA
Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:102 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-102Published: 30 May 2012
The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis.
Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups.
Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis.
Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus.
Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water.
The collars eliminated Trichodectes canis within 2 days and Sarcoptes scabiei within 3 months.
The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly-acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly shown. Consequently they have the potential to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases and other conditions directly associated with infestation throughout an entire season of parasite abundance.