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Open Access Research

Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

Ellen Tijsse-Klasen1, Manoj Fonville1, Fedor Gassner3, Ard M Nijhof67, Emil KE Hovius4, Frans Jongejan6, Willem Takken3, Johan R Reimerink2, Paul AM Overgaauw5* and Hein Sprong1*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands

2 Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands

3 Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

4 Companion Animal Hospital 't Heike, Veldhoven, The Netherlands

5 Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Veterinary Public Health, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

6 Utrecht Centre for Tick-borne Diseases (UCTD), Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

7 Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universit├Ąt Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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Parasites & Vectors 2011, 4:61  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-61

Published: 18 April 2011

Abstract

Background

Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes.

Results

The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont.

Conclusions

We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.