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Correction: The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

Marianne E Sinka1*, Yasmin Rubio-Palis23, Sylvie Manguin4, Anand P Patil1, Will H Temperley1, Peter W Gething1, Thomas Van Boeckel15, Caroline W Kabaria6, Ralph E Harbach7 and Simon I Hay16*

Author Affiliations

1 Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Tinbergen Building, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK

2 BIOMED, Universidad de Carabobo, Apartado 2073, Maracay 2101-A, Venezuela

3 Laboratorio de Ecología de Vectores, Dirección de Control de Vectores y Fauna Nociva, Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud, Maracay, Venezuela

4 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Lab. d'Immuno-Physiopathologie Virale et Moleculaire, UMR-MD3/Univ. Montpellier I, Faculté de Pharmacie, 15, Ave Charles Flahault, 34093 Montpellier, France

5 Biological Control and Spatial Ecology, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP160/12, Av FD Roosevelt 50, B1050, Brussels, Belgium

6 Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI - Univ. Oxford - Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, P.O. Box 43640-00100 Nairobi, Kenya

7 Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK

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Parasites & Vectors 2011, 4:210  doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-210

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Received:28 October 2011
Accepted:3 November 2011
Published:3 November 2011

© 2011 Sinka et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In our original publication detailing the distribution of the dominant vector species of malaria in the Americas (Sinka et al. [1]), both Figure one (The predicted distribution map of An. darlingi) and the An. darlingi map shown in Additional file two (The predicted distribution maps of the nine dominant vector species of the Americas) included points on the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. These are confirmed absence points and therefore should not have been included. These maps are intended to indicate locations only where the species

has been confirmed. Anopheles darlingi has never been found or reported from Costa Rica or Nicaragua (as indicated in the Expert opinion map) despite numerous and comprehensive surveys in the area trying to locate it.

Copies of the corrected figure and the updated Additional file can be found in Figure 1 and Additional file 1 (in this publication) and are also available on the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) website:

thumbnailFigure 1. Map details: The predicted distribution of An. darlingi mapped using hybrid data (318 occurrence data plus 500 pseudo-presences weighted at half that of the occurrence data and randomly selected from within the Expert Opinion (EO) range). Pseudo-absences (2840) were generated at a ratio of 5:1 absence to presence points, taking into account 250 pseudo-presence points (500 at half weight), and were randomly selected from within the 1000 km buffer surrounding the EO (EO shown in the inset map). Predictions are not shown beyond the buffer boundary. The black dots show the 318 occurrence records for An. darlingi. Map statistics: Deviance = 0.2763, Correlation = 0.8351, Discrimination (AUC) = 0.9684, Kappa = 0.7902. Environmental variables: 1. Prec (max), 2. LST (max), 3. Prec (mean), 4. LST (P2), 5. Prec (P2) (Please see Additional file four in the original publication for abbreviations and definitions). Copyright: Licensed to the Malaria Atlas Project [2] under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Citation: Sinka et al. (2010) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis, Parasite and Vectors 2011, 4:210.

Additional file 1. Predictive species distribution maps for the nine DVS of the Americas.

Format: PDF Size: 2.2MB Download file

This file can be viewed with: Adobe Acrobat ReaderOpen Data

Figure One: webcite

Additional File Two (all species maps): webcite


  1. Sinka ME, Rubio-Palis Y, Manguin S, Patil AP, Temperley WH, et al.: The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.

    Parasit Vectors 2010, 3:72. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL